Since taking over at the Department of Justice (DOJ), Attorney General Jeff Sessions has been attempting to reignite the “War on Drugs” (for example, he issued a memo to federal prosecutors calling for the them to seek the harshest possible sentence when dealing with low-level drug offenders, the exact opposite of Obama-era guidance).
Sessions now has his sites on state-run medical marijuana programs (marijuana is still listed as a Schedule 1 illegal drug according to the DEA, the most severe categorization for drugs). In May, Sessions tried to pressure Congress to not stop him from authorizing the DOJ to prosecute medical marijuana clinics and patients.
Sessions attack on medical marijuana would be extremely harmful to not only the patients that benefit from medical marijuana but may even increase opioid overdose deaths in those states (there’s actually a growing body of scientific evidence that opioid overdose deaths are reduced in states with legalization of marijuana; I plan to write a more detailed post on this in the near future).
Thankfully the Senate has taken measures to prevent Sessions from being able to take action against medical marijuana. A bipartisan committee approved an amendment to the 2018 Commerce, Justice and Science appropriations bill. The amendment does not allow DOJ to use funds to prevent states from “implementing their own state laws that authorize the use, distribution, possession or cultivation of medical marijuana.” In essence, even if Sessions instructed Federal law enforcement agents to target medical marijuana clinics and patients, they would be unable to do so because it would be illegal to use any federal dollars to carry out this action.
Time will tell what other ways Sessions will try revive antiquated drug policy (if he survives his tenure as AG that is). A study in the Lancet last year examined the public health impact of drug policy throughout the world (future post on this too) and concluded, among other things, that “policing practices undertaken in the name of the public good have demonstrably worsened public health outcomes.” Clearly, Sessions didn’t read this report…
When a politician is in his or her final few month in office (because either they lost their re-election or simply decided not to or can’t run), they call this the “lame duck” period. President Obama’s last few months in office were anything but “lame”.
On December 14, 2016, in a rare move of bipartisanship, Obama signed into law the massive 21st Century Cures Act. This law provides a boost in funding for NIH (which includes $1.8 billion for the cancer moonshot initiative), changes to the drug approval process through the FDA, and ambitious mental health reform. This huge bill has the stated purpose of “To accelerate the discovery, development, and delivery of 21st century cures, and for other purposes.”
I’m willing to bet many people were totally unaware of this legislation that could help millions. There are some parts that are controversial and, as with any large piece of legislation, some provision that benefit this interest or that have been worked in (the changes to drug approval at the FDA will likely benefit Big Pharma). I’m not a health policy expert so I’m not about to go through and discuss line-by-line the winners and losers in this law (if you want a more in depth discussion: NPR, Washington Post, and PBS have all written articles on the law).
There’s one piece of the law that I am particularly thrilled about: $1 billion over 2 years for treatment for opioid addiction. That’s rights billion, with a “B”. The money is to be distributed to states in the form of block grants (block grants are in essence a large allocation of federal money to be used for a specific purpose given to states but the details of how that money is used is decided by the states themselves).
This is an unprecedented amount of funding earmarked exclusively to fight the opioid epidemic that is still raging in the US. The funding is to be used for expanding and increasing accessibility to treatment, such as life saving medication-assisted treatments such as methadone and buprenorphine. The federal money will also be used to train healthcare professionals to better care for people dealing with addiction, and a comparatively smaller amount for conducting research on how best to fight the epidemic, and other provisions.
I’ve written about methadone and buprenorphine and their effectiveness ad nauseam on this site and I am personally and thrilled to see a massive federal effort to increase access to these vital tools in the fight against the opioid crisis
The Cures Act comes on the heels of another promising piece of legislation, the Comprehensive Addiction and Recovery Act (CARA), signed into law by President Obama on July 13, 2016. This law includes provisions to expand the availability of naloxone–the medication used to save people from the effects of opioid overdose–to first responders, improve prescription drug monitoring programs, make it easier for healthcare providers to administer, dispense, or prescribe medication-assisted treatments, and other provisions.
The combination of these two pieces of legislation is a promising and much needed initial federal response.
However, this huge boost in funds for treatment in the Cures Act is only for 2-years. President Trump’s budget for FY18 would add $500 million for opioid addiction but most analysts think this is just a sneaky way of making it seem as if he’s supporting addiction treatment when the money has already been written in as part of the Cures Act. Further, his cuts to the Department of Health and Human Services (which contains the NIH and other agencies that administer the Cures and CARA laws) would make it difficult to launch any type of effective response to the crisis.
Regardless of how things shake out, Trump’s massive cuts for everything that’s not the Department of Defense will likely hurt the fight against the opioid epidemic too. The real question is by how much?
One of the great questions in the addiction field is why do some people become full-blown addicts while other people can use drugs occasionally without progressing to anything more serious? One part the answer definitely has to do with the drug itself. For example, heroin causes a more intensely pleasurable high than cocaine and people that try heroin are more likely to become addicted to it than cocaine. But that’s not the whole story.
I’ve written previously about how a negative, stressful environment can have long-lasting negative impacts on the development of a child’s brain (also known as early-life stress of ELS). ELS such as childhood abuse (physical or sexual) and neglect can increase the risk for a whole host of problems as an adult such as depression, bipolar disorder, PTSD, and of course drug and alcohol abuse. There’s even a risk for more physical ailments like obesity, migraines, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and more.
Childhood abuse/neglect = psychological and physical problems as an adult.
This idea doesn’t sound too controversial but believe it or not, the idea that a bad or stressful situation as a child would do anything to you as an adult was laughed away as not possible. It’s only within the last decade or so that a wealth of research has supported this idea that ELS can physically change the brain and that these changes can last through the abused child’s entire life.
This recent review paper (published in the journal Neuron) is an excellent, albeit technical, summary of dozens research papers done on this subject and the underlying biology behind their findings.
I especially love the quotes the author included at the beginning of the article:
And even more recently, yet another research paper has come out that highlights how important childhood is for the development of the brain and how a stressful childhood environment can impact the function of a person as an adult.
This most recent report, published in the journal Neuropscyhopharmacology concludes that early childhood abuse affects male and females differently. That is to say that the physical changes that occur in the brain are distinct for men and women who were abused as children.
Studies like this one are done by examining the brains of adults who were abused as kids and then comparing the activity or structure of different parts of the brain to the brains of adults who were not abused. The general technique of examining the structure or activity of the brain in a living human being is called neuroimaging and includes a range of techniques such as MRI, PET, fMRI, and others. (I’ve written about some of these techniques before. In fact, the development of better methods to image the brain is a huge are of research in the neuroscience field).
However, this study did not examine behavioral differences in the subjects, but as I said above, a great number of many other studies have looked at the psychological consequences of ELS. But this paper is really primarily interested in the gender differences in the brains of adults that have been abused as kids.
*Note: the following discussion is entirely my own and is not mentioned or alluded to by the author’s of this study at all.
This work—and the many studies that preceded it—has important implications because as a society, we have to realize that part of our personality/intelligence/character/etc. is determined by our genetics while the other part totally depends on the environment we are born into. I don’t want to extrapolate too much but the idea that childhood abuse can increase the risk of psychological problems as an adult also supports the broader notion that a great deal of a person’s success is determined by entirely random circumstances.
The science shows that a child born into a household rife with abuse will have more chance of suffering from a psychological problem (such as addiction) as an adult than someone who was born into a more stable life. The psychological problem could hurt that person’s ability to study in school or to hold down a job. And the tragic irony, of course, is that no child gets to choose the conditions under which they are born. A child, born completely without a choice of any kind over whether or not he or she will be abused, can still suffer the consequences of it (and blame for it) as an adult.
As a society, we often always blame a person’s failures as brought on by his or her own personal failings, but what if a person’s childhood plays an important role in why that person might have failed? How, as a society, do we incorporate this information into the idea of ourselves as having complete control over our minds and our destinies, when we very clearly do not? As an adult, how much of a person’s personality is really “their own problem” when research like this clearly show that ELS impacts a person well after the abuse has ended?
If the environment a child is born into has a tangible, physical effect on how the brain functions as an adult, than this problem is more than a social or an economic one: this is a matter of public health. Studies that support findings such as these provide empirical significance for public policy and public services for child care such as universal pre-K, increased availability of daycare, health insurance/medical access for children, increased and equitable funding for all public schools regardless of the economic situation of the district that school happens to be located in, etc.
One of our goals as a society (if indeed we believe ourselves to be a functioning society…the success of Donald Trump’s candidacy raises some serious doubts…but I digress) is the improvement of the lives of ALL of our citizens and securing the prosperity of the society for future generations. Reducing childhood poverty and abuse quite literally could help secure the future generations themselves and improve the ability of any child to grow up to become a successful and productive adult.
Public programs are essential because the unfortunate reality for many people born into poverty is that they must work all the time at low paying jobs in order to simply survive and may not be able to give their children all the advantages of a wealthier family. And this is where government and public policy step in, to correct the imbalances and unfairness inherent to the randomness of life and level the playing field for all peoples. Of course, the specific programs and policies to reduce childhood poverty and abuse would need to be evaluated empirically themselves to guarantee an important improvement in development of the brain and health of the child when he/she grows up.
And this is the real power of neuroscience and basic scientific research papers like this one. Research into how our brains operate in real-life situations reveal a side of our minds and our personalities that we never may have considered before and the huge implications this can have for society. The brain is a complex machine and just like other machines it can be broken.
Of course, we shouldn’t extrapolate too much and say that, for example, a drug addict who was abused as a child is not responsible for anything they’ve ever done in between. But is important to recognize all the mitigating factors at play in a person’s success and simply dismiss someone’s problems as “their own personal responsibility.” As a neuroscientist, I might argue that that phrase and the issues behind it are way more nuanced than the how certain politicians like to use it.
Special endnote Due to some recent shifts in my career, Dr. Simon Says Science will be expanding the content that I write about. Addiction and neuroscience will still be prominently featured but I plan to delve into a variety of other topics that I find interesting and sharing opinions that I think are important. I hope you will enjoy the changes! Thanks very much!
In a remarkable example of scientific collaboration, a new study produced by scientists at various research centers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have identified how ketamine works as powerful and fast-acting anti-depressant. This discovery may lead to an effective and potent new treatment for depression.
Ketamine is normally used as an anesthetic but at low doses, it has been shown to have rapid acting and long-lasting anti-depressant effects in humans. Fast relief of depression is incredibly important because most anti-depressant medications are not very effective or can take weeks (or even months in some cases) for maximal effect, which hurts the recovery of patients suffering from this crippling psychiatric disorder. However, despite its rapid action, ketamine has many side effects such as euphoria (a “high” feeling), dissociative effects (a type of hallucination involving a sense of detachment or separation from the environment and the self), and it is addictive.
If ketamine could be made safe to use without any of its other more dangerous properties, it would be a powerful anti-depressant medication.
With this goal in mind, scientists at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), University of Maryland, and University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill sought to unravel the mystery of how ketamine works.
When ketamine enters the body it is broken down (metabolized) into many other chemical byproducts (metabolites). The team of scientists identified that it’s not ketamine itself but one of it’s metabolites, called HNK, that is responsible for ketamine’s anti-depressant action Most importantly HNK does not have any of the addictive or hallucinogenic properties of ketamine. What does this mean? This special metabolite can now be produced and can be given to patients while ketamine (and all its unwanted negative side effects) can be bypassed.
Of course, many tests still need to be done in humans to confirm the effectiveness of HNK, but the study is an amazing example of how an observation can be made in the clinic, brought in the lab for detailed analysis, and then brought back to the clinic as a potential effective treatment.
But how did the scientist’s do it and how do they know that this HNK is what’s responsible for ketamine’s depression-fighting power? Keep reading below to find out.
Ketamine has traditionally been used an as anesthetic due to it’s pain relieving and consciousness-altering properties . However, at doses too low to induce anesthesia, it has been shown that ketamine has the ability to relieve depression . Even more remarkably, the anti-depressant effects of ketamine occur within a few hours and can last for a week with only a single dose. Most anti-depressant medications can take weeks before they start relieving the symptoms of depression (this is due to how those medications work in the brain).
However, ketamine also has unwanted psychoactive properties, which limits its usefulness in the treatment of depression. Ketamine causes an intense high or sense of euphoria as well as hallucinogenic effects such as dissociation, a bizarre sense of separation of the mind from the self and environment. Ketamine is also addictive and is an abused party drug .
A debate has been going about whether ketamine should be used for the treatment of depression and if its risks outweigh its benefits . However, what if ketamine itself is not responsible for the anti-depressant function but a chemical byproduct of ketamine? This is what the scientist’s in this study reported: it’s HNK and not ketamine that are responsible for the powerful anti-depressant functions. This discovery was made in mice but how do scientists even study depression in a mouse?
How do scientists study depression in rodents?
Depression is a complex psychological state that is difficult to study but scientists have developed a number of tests to measure depressive-like behavior in rodents. While any one particular test is probably not good enough to measure depression, the combination of multiple tests—especially if similar results are found for each test—provide an accurate measurement of depression in rodents.
Some of the tests include:
Forced Swim Test
As the name reveals, in this test rodents are place in a cylinder of water in which they cannot escape are a forced to swim. Mice and rats are very good swimmers and when placed in the water will swim around for a while, searching for a way to escape. However, after a certain amount of time, the mouse will “give up” and simply stop swimming and will just float there. This “giving up” is used as a proxy for depression, similar to how people that are depressed often lack perseverance or motivation to keep trying. If you a give drug and the mice swim for much longer than without the drug, then you can make the argument that the drug had an anti-depressant effect. See this video of a Forced Swim Test.
Learned Helplessness Test
One theory of depression is that it can result from being placed in a bad situation in which we have no control over. This test models this type of scenario.
First, mice are place in chamber where they experience random foot shocks (the learning about the bad, hopeless situation). Next, they are place in a chamber that has two compartments. When a foot shock occurs, a door opens to a “safe” chamber, which gives the mouse an opportunity to escape the bad situation. One measure of depression is that some mice won’t try to escape or will fail to escape. In essence, they’ve given up at trying to escape the bad situation (learned helplessness). You can then take these “depressed” mice, and run the experiment again but this time with the anti-depressant drug you want to test and see how they do at escaping the foot shocks. Read more here.
Chronic Social Defeat Stress
Imagine you had a bully that would beat you up every day but the bully lived next door to you and would stare at you through his bedroom window? It would probably make you feel pretty crummy, wouldn’t it? Well, in essence, that’s what chronic social defeat stress test is all about .
A male mouse is placed in a cage with a much larger, older, and meaner male mouse that then attacks it. After the attack session, the “victim” mouse is housed in a cage where it can see and smell the bigger mouse. This induces a sense of hopelessness or depression in the “victim” mouse and it will not try to interact with a “stranger”” mouse if given a choice between the stranger and an empty cage (mice are pretty curious animals and will usually sniff around a cage with a unfamiliar mouse in it). This social avoidance is a measure of depression. In contrast, some mice will be resilient or resistant to this type of stress and will interact normally with the “stranger” mouse. Similar to above, you can test an anti-depressant drug in the “resilient” mice and the “depressed” mice.
There are a few others but these are three of the main ones used in this paper.
How did the NIH scientists figure out how Ketamine works to fight depression?
It was believed that ketamine’s anti-depressant function was due to its ability to inhibit the activity of the neurotransmitter glutamate. Specifically, ketamine inhibits a special target of glutamate called the NMDA receptor .
The first thing done is this paper was to study ketamine’s effects in rodent models of depression and sure enough, it was effective at relieving depression-like behavior in the mice.
Ketamine comes in two different chemical varieties or enantiomers, R-ketamine and S-ketamine. Interestingly, the R-version was more effective than the S-version (this will be more important later).
Recall that ketamine is though to work because it inhibits the NMDA receptor, but the scientists found that another drug, MK-801, that also directly inhibits the NMDA receptor, did have the same anti-depressant effects. So what is it about ketamine that makes it a useful anti-depressant then if not it’s ability to inhibit the NMDA receptor?
Ketamine is broken down into multiple different other chemical byproducts or metabolites once it enters the body. The scientists were able to isolate and measure these different metabolites from the brains of mice. For some reason one of the metabolites, (2S,6S;2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine (HNK) was found to be three times higher in females compared to males. Ketamine was also more effective at relieving depression in female mice compared to male mice and the scientists wondered: could it be because of the difference in the levels of the ketamine metabolite HNK?
To test this, a chemically modified version of ketamine was produced that can’t be metabolized. Amazingly the ketamine that couldn’t be broken down did not have any anti-depressant effects. This finding strongly suggests that it’s really is one of the metabolites, and not ketamine itself, that’s responsible for the anti-depressant activity. The most likely candidate? The HNK compound that showed the unusual elevation in females vs males.
Similar to ketamine, HNK comes in two varieties, (2S,6S)-HNK and (2R,6R)-HNK. The scientists knew that the R-version of ketamine was more potent than the S-version so they wondered if the same was true for HNK. Sure enough, (2R,6R)-HNK was able to relieve depression in mice while the S-version did not. The scientists appeared to have identified the “magic ingredient” of ketamine’s depression-relieving power.
These experiments required a great deal of sophisticated and complex analytical chemistry. However, this is beyond my area of expertise so unfortunately cannot discuss it further.
So now the team had what they thought was the “magic ingredient” from ketamine for fighting depression. But could they support their behavior work with more detailed molecular analyses?
The next step was to look at the actual properties of neurons themselves and see if (2R,6R)-HNK changed their function in the short and long term. Using a series of sophisticated electrophysiology experiments in which the activity of individual neurons can be measured, the scientists found that glutamate signaling was indeed disrupted. However, it appeared that a different type of glutamate receptor was involved: the AMPA receptor, and not NMDA receptor. The scientists confirmed this with protein analysis; components of the AMPA receptor increased in concentration in the brain over time. These data suggest that it is alterations in glutamate-AMPA signaling that underlies the long-term effectiveness of HNK.
OK, so great! HNK reduces depression but does it still have all the other nasty side effects of ketamine? If it does, then it’s no better than ketamine itself.
For the final set of experiments, the scientists looked at the psychoactive and addictive properties of ketamine. Using a wide range of behavioral tests that I won’t go into the details of, 2R,6R)-HNK had a much lower profile of side effects than ketamine.
Finally, ketamine is an addictive substance that can and is abused illegally. A standard test of addiction in mouse models is self-administration (I’ve discussed this technique previously). Mouse readily self-administer ketamine, which indicates they want to take more and more of it, just like a human addict. However, rodent’s do not self-administer HNK! This means that HNK is not addictive like ketamine.
In conclusion, (2R,6R)-HNK appears to be extremely effective at relieving depression in humans, has less side-effects than ketamine, and is not effective. Sounds pretty good to me!
Next step: does HNK work in humans? To be continued….
Peltoniemi MA, et al. Ketamine: A Review of Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Anesthesia and Pain Therapy. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 2016.
Newport DJ, et al. Ketamine and Other NMDA Antagonists: Early Clinical Trials and Possible Mechanisms in Depression. The American journal of psychiatry. 2015;172(10):950-66.
Morgan CJ, et al. Ketamine use: a review. Addiction. 2012;107(1):27-38.
Sanacora G, Schatzberg AF. Ketamine: promising path or false prophecy in the development of novel therapeutics for mood disorders? Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 2015;40(5):1307.
Hollis F, Kabbaj M. Social defeat as an animal model for depression. ILAR journal / National Research Council, Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 2014;55(2):221-32.
Abdallah CG, et al. Ketamine’s Mechanism of Action: A Path to Rapid-Acting Antidepressants. Depression and anxiety. 2016.